Ruling with Allah's Laws and kufr (disbelief), a misunderstanding

compiled by:-

Assalam alaikom

To those who are quick to judge Muslims rulers as Kafirs (infidels/non-Muslims),

Selections translated from:
Tafseer Al-Tabari (the most important book on the explanation of holy Quran, in the narrative side). Tafseer Al-Kasshaf (the most important book of the explanation of holy Quran in the linguistic side). Tafseer Al-Kabeer (a great work on Quranic explanation in the rational, legal, linguistic side) 

‘Let not the believers take for friends or helpers Unbelievers rather than believers: if any do that, in nothing will there be help from Allah, except that ye fear from them, that ye may Guard yourselves from them. But Allah cautions you (To remember) Himself; for the final goal is to Allah’(Al-Quran)

Cause of the revelation of this verse:
A certain group of people from among the Jews came to the Muslims so that they can confuse them regarding their religion (Islam), so Rafa ibn Al-Munzir, Abd Ar-Rahman ibn Jubair, and Saeed ibn Khaisama said to those people from the Muslims ‘Keep your distance from these Jews, and be cautious that they may confuse you regarding your religion (Islam)’, so his verse was revealed.
If it is said that Allah said ‘if any do that, in nothing will there be help from Allah’, and this is the attribute of a disbeliever, we say in response: that the meaning of this is ‘nothing will be there from Allah in the sense of protection (wilaya)’, and this doesn’t not necessitate disbelief in taking the disbelievers as friends and protectors.
Know this that a Muslim (believer), taking a non-Muslim as friend/protector has three faces, The first is: The Muslim is pleased with his disbelief and befriends the disbeliever for the sake of his disbelief, then this is forbidden because everyone who does this implies the correctness of disbelief, and saying disbelief is right is in fact disbelief and being happy with disbelief is disbelief, thus it becomes impossible for a Muslims to remain Muslim in this sense. If it is said that Allah said ‘if any do that, in nothing will there be help from Allah’, then it should be said that this doesn’t necessitate disbelief thus it doesn’t fall under this verse because Allah said ‘O ye who believe...’, so it should be noted that Allah’s address to the believers must imply that believers remaining on belief, when such address is given to them.

The second is: dealing nicely with them in a manifest way, and this is not forbidden.

The third is: the medium between the first two and that is inclining towards them and providing help and support either for the sake of kinship, or love, with the belief that their religion is false and rejected. This doesn’t also imply disbelief from the part of Muslim except that it is forbidden, because this way may lead to the belief about their religion and ways being right, which if done would take one outside Islam.
‘Except that ye fear from them, that ye may Guard yourselves from them’
An exception is made by Allah when Muslims fear from being harmed by them. It then means that befriending them and dealing with them openly but in heart keeping despise and hatred and waiting for the possible harm from them being ceased.
‘O ye who believe do not befriend/take as protectors the Jews and Christians. They are but friends/protectors of each other. Whosoever turns to them befriending/taking as protectors is from among you then indeed he is one of them. Verily Allah doesn’t love the oppressors’ (Al-Quran).

The meaning of ‘do not befriend/take as protectors’ is ‘do not depend on their help, or incline towards them with sympathy’. Then Allah said ‘Whosoever turns to them...’ and Ibn Abbas said: It is as if one is like them and this is in the sense of extremity and heaviness (in addressing the Muslims) in being in difference with their religion. (It is not in the real sense so to say one is becoming a non-Muslim, but a threat and severity of such an action. It can be compared to the verse, ‘...And do not die except you being a Muslim’. Obviously no one can guarantee one’s death but this command is like saying from Allah so that we remain firm on Islam. It is an example of severity and importance)
The correct view to us is that Allah mentioned that believers (Muslims) all of them should not take Jews and Christians as friends and protectors against people of Islam who believe in Allah and His Messenger (pbuh), and mentioned that whoever has done so then he is indeed from among them in the (sense of) grouping against Allah and His Messenger and the believers, and Allah and His Messenger (pbuh) is free from them.
‘And whosoever judges by other than what Allah has revealed then indeed they are disbelievers’ (Al-Quran)
This verse has been revealed in regarding the Jews who distorted the Torah changing Allah’s laws. (But the legal principle states that the verses are taken as proof even though they are revealed for a specific reason, thus even though this verse is revealed for the specific reason regarding Jews it is applicable to Muslims too, but the question is what does it mean).
The Khawarij (heretical group of Islamic history who stated the fourth Caliph Ali as becoming an infidel, when he accepted a certain treaty with Muwaiyah) said: Everyone that disobeys Allah is an infidel (Kafir). The scholars of orthodox Islam (Asharites) stated that the case is not like this (i.e. not an infidel). As to the khawarij they show proof by this verse as stated above and said ‘it is an explicit text in the fact that all who judges by other than what Allah has revealed is a disbeliever, because all who sins (disobeys Allah) has indeed judged by other than what Allah has revealed (because Allah’s law is no one must sin), so it is necessarily implying that a sinner the moment he sins is becoming an infidel! (Ask this: ‘how many Muslims today do not pray or fast or lies, or drinks alcohol? They have not judged on their selves by Allah’s laws, so are they becoming non-Muslims? Such is the case of many Muslims rulers who do not judge by Allah’s laws. Also if a sin makes one disbeliever, what’s the point of repentance to Allah, with the fact that Allah doesn’t accept repentance from a non-Muslim? Also many other verses and hadeeth which explains such verses clearly point out that a sinner for his sin doesn’t become a non-Muslim, but the khawarij didn’t accept hadeeth narrated by non-khawarij as to them non-khawarij are infidels, so they deceived themselves. Refer to - Islamic sects)
Ata (a senior scholar of the early centuries of Islam) said: it is disbelief without disbelief. Tawuus (another senior scholar) said: it is not a disbelief (i.e. mentioned in the verse) which takes one outside Islam. Ikrimah (another senior scholar) said: This verse includes those disbelievers who by his heart rejects the law of Allah as binding and rebels Allah’s laws (making halal haram and haram halal and or believing namaz is not fard), but one who knows by his heart that it is Allah’s law true and states by his tongue that it is Allah’s law true, except that he doesn’t follow it, then such a person is not a disbeliever (which takes him outside Islam). The same explanation is from Ibn Abbas (An important companion of prophet (pbuh)), for whom the Prophet prayed ‘O Allah give him the understanding of religion and the interpretation- of the Kitab (Quran)’-Bukhari.

Conclusion: It is clear from the discussion that one who believes in his self that Islamic law is true and best but not follows it or applies it due to physical inability, or laziness or political, economic or military threat, is not a kafir, but a sinner who is voiding Allah’s mercy and guidance, and he is gradually taking himself/herself far away from Allah, or is excused (on case to case basis). The Prophet (saas) said that a sinner sees a sin even small, as a mountain falling over him. We must always as Muslims intend to be good Muslims, because drops of water can make an ocean, so too sins even little can make one disbelieve ultimately in Allah and all articles of faith.

1 comment:

  1. Learning and understanding different culture and religions helps me understand more about them.

    thanks for sharing


Plz spread this word to your friends